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The recommendations called on all EU countries to take a common action to implement national, population-based screening pro­grams for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer, as an in­te­gral part of the Community Agreement duties in or­der to complete the national policies, with the aim to im­prove the public health. InRomania declared a 0. Re­gar­ding cervical cancer screening, the coverage rate is 9. The technical support offered to the mem­ber states could contribute to the increase of screening rates, while guides and structural support screening prostate cancer guidelines contribute to assuring a comparably high health system quality in all Europe.

Al doilea raport de im­ple­men­tare a recomandărilor Consiliului European pri­vind scree­nin­gul pentru cancer a fost elaborat şi publicat în anulcu participarea a 28 de state membre. Într-un ra­port ul­te­rior privind stadiul implementării recomandării Con­si­liu­lui Eu­ro­pean, România figurează printre puținele state mem­bre ale UE care nu au încă programe populaționale de scre­e­ning organizat pentru cancerele de sân și colorectal.

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Obiectivul general al pla­nu­lui UE de combatere a cancerului este reprezentat de îm­bu­nă­tă­ţi­rea pre­ve­nirii, depistării, tratamentului şi gestionării can­ce­ru­lui în UE, reducând inegalităţile de sănătate între şi în in­te­rio­rul sta­te­lor membre. Sprijinul tehnic acordat statelor mem­bre ar putea contribui la creşterea ratelor de screening, în timp ce ghidurile şi suportul structural pot contribui la asi­gu­ra­rea unui nivel similar ridicat de calitate în toată Europa.

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Cuvinte cheie screening cancer recomandările Uniunii Europene cancer cervical cancer mamar cancer colorectal Cancer remains one of the main death causes in the European Union EU and in the entire world. Although cancer is determined by a combination of different factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental influences, lifestyle and infectious agents, avoiding the known risks and adopting a healthy lifestyle could highly decrease prostatita metrogil risk of developing a neoplasia.

Therefore, prevention is the simplest and the most efficient manner to reduce cancer in the EU. Cancer screening can be achieved using two strategies: Population-based screening programs, with screening invitation systematically addressed by the public authorities to one certain segment of the population defined as target, by releasing a political and public document which stipulates the key methods of screening examination.

Since then, the member states of the EU initiated a series of actions and made a commitment, in accordance with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, to reduce the premature mortality due to chronic diseases, including cancer, with a third until According to the EU estimates fromout of 1, new cases of cancer, 1. Transpirație de la prostatită screening permits cancer detection in a preinvasive stage or in premature invasive stages, so that lesions can be adequately treated, increasing the curability chance.

The most important indicator of the screening performance is represented by the decrease of the pathology-specific prostata medicament natural index; in the case of cervical cancer, identifying screening prostate cancer guidelines lesions induces the reduction of cervical cancer incidence, which makes this parameter an extremely helpful indicator.

In order to ensure proper organization and quality control, the member states should allocate adequate human and financial resources, while ensuring equal, equitable access to screening, taking into account the special needs of particular socioeconomic groups included in the target population.

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The screening methods that fulfilled the criteria recommended by the European Council in were: PAP cytological examination for cervical cancer precursor lesions screening, the screening beginning at 20 years of age, but not later than the age of 30; mammographic screening for breast cancer, offered to women aged 50 to screening prostate cancer guidelines years old, in accordance with the European guidelines regarding the quality assurance in mammography; the evaluation of fecal occult blood test as a screening method for colorectal cancer in men and in women aged 50 to screening prostate cancer guidelines years old.

The recommendations of the European Council provide for the use of these screening methods only in screening prostate cancer guidelines context of organized population, national or regional programs, ensuring quality at all levels, assuring information regarding the benefits and risks, suitable resources for screening, monitoring with complementary diagnostic procedures, psychological support and treatment availability of individuals with positive screening tests. The resulting data must be collected and evaluated until the final diagnosis; data storage and management are recommended to adhere to the standards defined by the European Network of Cancer Registries, and the screening programs control should be performed at an appropriate time interval.

The introduction of new screening tests can be done only after their evaluation in randomized controlled trials in order to prove the benefits of the new method on specific screening parameters, on mortality, in the context of consecutive therapeutic procedures, clinical results, side effects, morbidity, quality of life and, last but not least, on the basis of cost-effectiveness 1.

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In the policy documents developed in this joint action, a special attention was paid to cancer screening programs, highlighting the significant impact that these screening programs had on health indicators, especially on reducing the cancer incidence and mortality.

The EPAAC joint action was followed by the CANcer CONtrol joint action CANCONwhich was finalized in February with the publication of a European Guide to Cancer Plans and a set of health policies which continue to support the organization of population-based cancer programs for the three tumor sites, which must be implemented in accordance with the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the screening programs, which define the organization and implementation planning, so that these programs provide maximum benefits and minimum risks.

The second report on the implementation of the European Council Recommendations on cancer screening was elaborated and published inwith the participation of 28 member states 3. The cancer screening programs implementation in EU member states represents the most comprehensive prevention action in order to reduce breast, cervical and colorectal cancer mortality, as well as reducing the incidence of cervical and colorectal diseases.

The report identifies the implementation extend and also an essential series of indicators that must be continuously monitored to ensure improved screening quality, which are especially useful to gradually expand the program coverage and to provide a basis for enhancing screening effectiveness in the EU.

Data quality can be improved by introducing potent health information systems capable to associate screening programs to the existing cancer and mortality registries 3. The European Committee has funded and supported the development of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in scientific evidence-based cervical, breast and colorectal screening prostate cancer guidelines screening.

These guidelines are constantly reviewed and updated, incorporating all existing scientific documentation. The European Commission has also created the European Breast Cancer Initiative and the European Colorectal Cancer Initiative, groups of experts whose role is to provide recommendations and guidance on quality assurance services for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast and colorectal cancer.

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Romania has been completely deficient in nationally organized cancer screening programs until care cu inflamarea prostatitei, when, after a regionally screening prostate cancer guidelines pilot program in the Northwest region, the national program for the early active detection of cervical cancer was screening prostate cancer guidelines, using Babeş-Papanicolaou testing in screening regime financed from the Ministry of Health budget.

This adenom prostatita remedii populare represents one of the testing strategies and includes screening programs recommended by the Oncology Commission of the Health Ministry; it has been developed inas a specific chapter on secondary prevention from the National Cancer Control Plan.

The coordination of an organized breast cancer screening program was piloted in the North-West region, within a project funded by the financial mechanism Norway-EEA, but the results were not recovered and developed into an extending program. Regarding breast cancer, for the analyzed periodin the target population, consisting in approximately 1. This 0. Of the same number of women representing the target population,women were effectively included in the screening and examined, respectively 9. By summarizing the presented data, the screening participation rate was Romania declares a mammographic examination coverage rate of 0.

Regarding cervical cancer screening, the examination coverage has a 9. Reducing the cancer burden in the population by detecting the early stages of the disease and reducing the medium-term or long-term specific mortality through organized screening interventions Objective 3. National health programs include certain approaches to the cervical cancer primary and secondary prevention.

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The cervical cancer screening subprogram is monitored by technical assistance units TAUMwith territorial division, according to Table 1.

The budget allocated to the National Program is presented in Table 2.

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Each of these two projects has a phase 2, which is in the evaluation stage, as follows: a For cervical cancer screening — it is intended to select and fund four projects, covering the regions North-West, Center, South Muntenia and North-East. The program offers Babeş-Papanicolaou testing for women aged years old and Screening prostate cancer guidelines testing for women aged and, if positive, cytological triage for women agedrespectively HPV testing for women aged and for screening prostate cancer guidelines women, early diagnosis and treatment of dysplastic lesions.

The presence of strategic and operational interventions for the three pathologies is summarized in Table 3. The early detection of breast cancer is not included among the screening programs, there is only a national program supported by the National Health Insurance System, including breast reconstruction after surgery.

The Activity Report of the Ministry of Health for last available declares that, during this year,HPV vaccinations were performed on at-risk population group girls aged years old. Regarding the screening of cervical cancer, the same report of the Ministry of Health states that the screening subprogram in operated with 75 networks, which have performed tests according to Table 4.

The incidence of the two types of pathologies in is presented in Table 5. The standardized mortality for the two pathologies in Romania compared to the European Union is represented in Figures 1 and 2.

Figure 1. Standardized breast cancer mortality. Romania versus European Union 28, Data source: Eurostat Figure 2. Standardized mortality from cervical cancer.

Data source: Eurostat The incidence analysis in Globocan is based on estimates, given the fact that in Romania it is reported only through the regional registers Cluj and Timişoara. For this reason, we chose the EU-Eurostat database for the mortality analysis. Especially in the case of mortality, there is an increase in mortality caused by breast cancer, while in the EU there has been reported a decrease and respectively stagnation for the other two pathologies.

The standardized rate of cervical cancer mortality is four times higher in Romania than the EU average, cervical cancer being a preventable cause of death.

Account Options

Starting with the recommendations, the scientific and technological progress has added new increased performance methods for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening; digital mammography, digital breast tomography, or nuclear magnetic resonance as a complementary method for women with extremely dense breast tissue, HPV testing, fecal immunological testing or endoscopy are progressively implemented within the European Union program. The results obtained in the field of neoplastic risk prediction announce a new development strategy: screening based on risk stratification.

Based on the support of the member states, the European Parliament leaders, including members of the MAPs Against Cancer group who have worked alongside the European Committee to enhance cancer prevention and nursing in Europe, will complete the existing national cancer plans in each European country.

The development of the EU Cancer Plan will take place in close proximity to Mission on Cancer, a new initiative of the Horizon Europe Framework Program for Research and Innovation, which maximizes the impact of European support for research and innovation and demonstrates the relevance of their results towards society.

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Issues caused by cancer have a wide range of affects. Healthcare systems were originally designed to treat short-term, acute infectious diseases. Given the general aging of the population, the growing prevalence of noncommunicable and emerging diseases and patterns changing, cancer continues to be the main candidate with increasing demands for healthcare and associated costs.

Increased pressure on national health and social care systems is detrimental to the focus on the patient and on continuing healthcare, which in case of cancer requires increased interdisciplinary collaboration in the health sector and cooperation with other sectors.

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Currently, the concept application of the treatment team composed of radiologist, surgeon, oncologist, healthcare staff, physiotherapists and researchers has limited applicability, occurring only in excellence centers. It is therefore clear that there is an urgent need for an outstanding focus on disease prevention and that the relevant skills of healthcare professionals should be strengthened.

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In some countries, a holistic approach is also essential in forming health workers, which also involves non-medical staff and screening prostate cancer guidelines caretakers, to elevate, for example, palliative care and pain management.

The development of a coordinated patient-centered approach must overcome the gaps between health and other sectors, connecting the hospital with primary care and community social services, helping patients to navigate the system and receive ongoing care. In addition, in many member states there are general deficiencies and discrepancies in training the healthcare workforce including cancer specialistswith the future plan requiring solutions to these problems.

The general mission of the EU Cancer Plan is to improve cancer prevention, detection, treatment and management in the EU by reducing health inequalities between and within the member states. It will establish actions that support, coordinate or complete the efforts of the member states.

In terms of early diagnosis, it is essential to reduce the time necessary until diagnosis, olimp prostatan opinie the coverage of the target population for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening, thus providing screening prostate cancer guidelines indications to expand cancer screening to other cancers lung, prostate, stomachprostatic specific antigen and low-dose computed tomography being currently under investigation.

The technical support offered to the member states could aid in increasing screening rates, while guidance and structural support can sustain a similarly high-quality level across Europe. Cancer Mission, European Health Data Space and European Cancer Knowledge represent proposals for new program implementations focused on the applicability of digitization and artificial intelligence which will be helpful in processing enormous amounts of data that will increase the apprehending of disease mechanisms and the development of new therapies.

Conflict of interests: The authors declare no con­flict of interests. Bibliografie European Council.

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Off J Eur Union. Cancer screening in the European Union.

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Report on the implementation of the Council Recommendation on cancer screening — First Report. Cancer Screening in the European Union.

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Report on the implementation of Council Recommendation on Cancer Screening. Brussels: European Commission, European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening. Fourth edition.

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Executive summary. In: European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening. Couespel N, et al. Radu Vlădăreanu, Prof.

Laurenţia Galeş, Prof. Cancerul mamar, ovarian şi cel cervical sunt cele mai